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What are the Different Types of Trust Beneficiaries?

Trust beneficiaries can be individuals, charities, or organizations, each with unique rights and benefits. They may receive income, principal, or both, depending on the trust's terms. Curious about how these roles impact estate planning? Dive deeper to understand the implications for your assets.
Charity Delich
Charity Delich

When a trustor dies, his or her trust beneficiaries are entitled to receive their shares of trust assets in accordance with the trustor’s instructions. The manner in which assets are distributed depends on the various rights that have been given to each of the beneficiaries. A key factor in determining possession rights is whether each of the beneficiaries has a vested interest or a contingent interest in trust assets. Fixed trust beneficiaries and discretionary beneficiaries are other categories of trust asset recipients. Most trust beneficiaries are people, although an entity, such as a school or charitable organization, may also be a named beneficiary.

Trust beneficiaries who have been given vested rights usually have fixed interests in the trust assets. For instance, a trust may grant Suzy the right to live on Blackacre for the remainder of her life. Suzy would have a vested right to live on Blackacre, which would end when she dies. She could not leave Blackacre to her heirs because she does not have an ownership interest in the property. A vested beneficiary’s right to use, possess, or enjoy trust assets may be delayed until a later time period or until the occurrence of a certain event.

A vested beneficiary could be given the right to live in a home until her death, but not actual ownership of the home.
A vested beneficiary could be given the right to live in a home until her death, but not actual ownership of the home.

A trust beneficiary who has a contingent interest in a trust only receive trust assets if certain triggering events occur. The triggering event is often the death of a primary beneficiary. For example, a trust may specify that Jane will become the owner of Blackacre if her sister Suzy dies. In this situation, Jane’s interest is contingent on the triggering event of Suzy dying. If Jane dies before Suzy, Jane would never be entitled to own Blackacre.

Generally, fixed trust beneficiaries are entitled to receive income and capital from trust assets as specified by the trustor in the trust document. Basically, a fixed beneficiary owns an equitable interest in his or her share of the trust assets. The trustee has limited or no discretion in determining when and how assets will be distributed to the beneficiary. Rather, the trustee must follow the trustor's instructions.

In a discretionary trust, the opposite is true. A trustee is customarily given limited instructions for managing the trust and is given broad discretion in handling specific trust administration issues. In this case, a trustee typically gets to decide when and how assets will be distributed to a beneficiary. For instance, the trustee may determine whether to accumulate annual income generated from trust assets or whether to pay that income out to the beneficiary.

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Discussion Comments


I knew a lady who never married or had any children and when she died, she named her church as the beneficiary of her trust. This was quite a large sum of money and she had listed specifically where she wanted the money to go.

I think it gave her peace of mind knowing her money would be used in a way that she approved of, and went for causes that she supported and believed in.

I always thought trusts were only for wealthy people, but have found out they are also a way to protect and channel your money.


When I was growing up I was friends with a girl who came from a wealthy family. I know she was the beneficiary of some kind of trust and when she turned 25, she would start receiving some income from it.

I think she was one of the living trust beneficiaries because when she turned 25 her parents who set up the trust were still living.

Even though she knew she would start to receive this money, she was pretty level headed about it. She worked hard and got good grades in college. I always thought how nice it would be to know I would receive money like this at a certain age.

I worked hard and got good grades too, but knew it was all up to me and that I wouldn't be receiving any extra help.


When I worked in the investments department of a bank, we had a few situations where we worked with different types of trusts. I remember one situation where the trust beneficiary of an IRA had no idea they were a beneficiary.

This came as a complete surprise to them, and it was pretty interesting to hear the whole story behind it. Before working in this area I really didn't understand much about how trusts worked.

There are many different kinds of trusts, each with their own rules and regulations. I still don't understand a whole lot about trusts, but know in certain situations they are very beneficial.

If I was ever going to set up some kind of trust, I would make sure I hired a good attorney who knew what they were doing.

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    • A vested beneficiary could be given the right to live in a home until her death, but not actual ownership of the home.
      By: Galina Barskaya
      A vested beneficiary could be given the right to live in a home until her death, but not actual ownership of the home.